Lowther, Peter E., and Calvin L. Cink. 2006. “House Sparrow (Passer domesticus).” The Birds of North America, edited by Paul G. Rodewald. Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved from the Birds of North America: https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/houspa doi: 10.2173/bna.12